Website Optimization: Try to Escape from 404 – Page Not Found

Article ID : Tip-003
Article Topic : Website Optimization
Article Title : Try to Escape from 404 – Page Not Found


Wen client always creates a request for the resources referenced in the page it is rendering and if server can’t find it sends 404 – Page Not Found.


When we create a website with a number of webpages and embedded resources like images (in HTML and CSS), JavaScript Files or Cascading Style Sheets, it is well obvious that we may skip something to include or we have referenced which is not present in the application. If this missing is visible, it can be caught and taken care. But, what if it is not visible?

Let’s talk about the favicon.ico. Microsoft started the concept of the favorite’s icon with IE 4. Since then the trend is started ad is adopted by major browsers to fetch and display the favorite’s icon in the address bar o on the tabs icon (for the bowsers supporting tabs). Earlier the concept was to fetch this icon only when the page is added to the favorite’s menu. But today if the browser has no previous visit recorded for the site the page belongs to will create a domain/favicon.ico request. Once the data is fetched it will cached by the browsers. But if the server returns 404 Error it will try to get that every time the page is requested from the domain.

Most of the cases even after the deployment is over for the site we skip this small thing favicon.ico to be included in the application root and the server is bothered again and again by the requests to provide the information which actually it doesn’t have. Every time without getting frustrated it calmly says 404 – Page Not Found.

How to Resolve

You can avoid this very common situation specifically for the icon case by

  • Using a favicon.ico file in the root of the application.
  • Specifying the page icon in the header of the page.

There a number of tools available out there in the market (freeware or paid), which can help you find out the web requests and response for your browser. Using them you can identify what is requested and what you have received in response. Fiddler is a free tool used for the same purpose.


Any request which cannot be fulfilled by the server is a burden to the server and to the network and to the client who is making that request. We can actually avoid them by using little cautiousness.

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Website Optimization: Serve Resources from Different Hosts

Article ID : Tip-002
Article Topic : Website Optimization
Article Title : Serve Resources from Different Hosts


Today all modern browsers are multi-threaded. Means they can server the contents while downloading more than one resource simultaneously. But there are still a few restrictions. There can’t be more than 2 parallel requests threads from the same host.


When your browser finds an embedded resource in your web page it creates a request from the host to deliver that resource. The browser adds these requests in the host wise resource download queue where they are served on the FIFO basis. If two resources are on the same host and the third one is on the other host it may be possible that you are receiving the third one before the first or second are downloaded. Here are few facts:

1.   Resource Download Queue
Each browser adds the resource request in a download queue. While parsing the HTML contents if the browser comes across any embedded resource like an image file or a style sheet file. It will add it to the download queue.
2.   Priority on the Bases of Resource Type
Every embedded resource download request will go into the queue as and when the parser comes across it and continue to parse the rest. In case of a JavaScript file however the case is bit different. If the browser finds a script file embedded in the Webpage it will stop parsing the rest of the page and will wait for that file to be downloaded first. So if that file is late in the queue, the wait and parsing time is high.
3.   Number of Requests per Host
Today the browsers are multithreaded to serve the content by parallel download and reduce the wait time. But according to the ISDN rule this limited to 2 parallel connections to the same host. So if there are more files embedded in a Webpage. It is going to take a considerably high time to fetch those resources.

How to Resolve

If the contents are served from different hosts the browser can create separate threads for them and have them downloaded parallel. However actually it impossible to have the separate host for each resource, we can have the separate hosts for different type of resources. In real scenarios having separate resource type hosts are also difficult, so we can fool the browser by serving the resources from different Subdomains, like Images from and scripts from Here are a few points in short

  • Create the separate Subdomains for different type of objects.
  • Separate user images from the interface images and serve them from different Subdomains.
  • You can use the alias in place of actually creating subdomain in the DNS server like -> However efficiency is at its max when you have not more than 4 alias per domain.


In case of rich user interface sites where there are high number of images and media files are embedded this technique is quite useful. Simply split the resources across multiple hosts and serve your users a much faster.

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Website Optimization: Reduce Total Number of Objects per Web Page

Article ID : Tip-001
Article Topic : Website Optimization
Article Title : Reduce Total Number of Objects per Web Page


Whenever a web page is requested from the server, the browser also seeks the embedded objects like style sheets, script files, images, media files etc. and tries to download them along with them. Each download creates a web request.


A web page design always consists of various numbers of embedded objects. But sometimes the good UI comes out to be expensive for the user’s time prospective. A user can wait for a page to be loaded with in an average of 10 sec without feedback (refreshing / retrying). Reducing the number of objects in page can reduce the wait time effectively. Here are a few facts.

1.   Average Header Size
Each response consists of a header along with the contents, which is of approximately 512 bytes. Consider there are a number of images which are well optimized to reduce their size, but this header information will also be added to the each image download. For a page containing 100 such images will have to download 25 additional KBs, which is huge even the image size is very less.
2.   Round-Trip Latency
Each request has its legacy time of average 0.2 seconds for the completion of a round trip. So with a page having the 100 objects will delay in loading for 20 seconds irrespective of the speed of the internet connection.
3.   Packet Loss
There is approximate 0.7 percent of the loss of the data in a packet transferred, which will be requested again from the server. Each request creates its own packet of bytes and will lead in to more loss and recovery cycles.

How to Resolve

Even if the page is optimized for the size of objects, there are a few other things which play a considerable role in the website optimization. Reducing number of embedded objects is one of them. Here are a few tips how we can achieve that.

  • Stitch Images together (create a sprite).
  • Combine the different style sheets into one on the bases of their media type like screen, print etc.
  • Combine the script files according to their features and functionality.


There are situations where there it is required to have many number of embedded objects in a page, but still we should try to reduce the number to 20/page and should use the cache-able objects so that they are not requested again and again on every time a page is requested.

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To study the ability of human spermatogonial stem cells (hSSCs) to proliferate in vitro under mouse spermatogonial stem cell (mSSC) culture conditions. testosterone.

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Gender contributes to differences in incidence and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and associated cardiovascular disease. To induce kidney damage in male and female Wistar rats (n = 12/group), a 0.25% adenine diet for 16 wk was used. Kidney function (blood urea nitrogen, plasma creatinine, proteinuria) and structure (glomerular damage, tubulointerstitial atrophy, fibrosis, inflammation); cardiovascular function (blood pressure, ventricular stiffness, vascular responses, echocardiography) and structure (cardiac fibrosis); plasma testosterone and estrogen concentrations; and protein expression for oxidative stress [heme oxygenase-1, inflammation (TNF-α), fibrosis (transforming growth factor-β), ERK1/2, and estrogen receptor-α (ER-α)] were compared in males and females. Adenine-fed females had less decline in kidney function than adenine-fed males, although kidney atrophy, inflammation, and fibrosis were similar. Plasma estrogen concentrations increased and plasma testosterone concentrations decreased in adenine-fed males, with smaller changes in females. CKD-associated molecular changes in kidneys were more pronounced in males than females except for expression of ER-α in the kidney, which was completely suppressed in adenine-fed males but unchanged in adenine-fed females. Both genders showed increased blood pressure, ventricular stiffness, and cardiac fibrosis with the adenine diet. Cardiovascular changes with adenine were similar in males and females, except males developed concentric, and females eccentric cardiac hypertrophy. In hearts from adenine-fed male and female rats, expression of ER-α and activation of the ERK1/2 pathway were increased, in part explaining changes in cardiac hypertrophy. In summary, adenine-induced kidney damage may be increased in males due to the suppression of ER-α. testosterone.

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The question of whether, as hormone therapies, spawning agents differ from each other to induce physiological pathways of gametogenesis and oocyte maturation in fish remains important, because it could modify undesirable changes, regulated by endocrine systems of individual fish. A series of experimental treatments were applied to investigate the underlying mechanism(s) in which female bunnei (Barbus sharpeyi) fish respond differently to hormone therapies. Female broodstocks were injected twice (with 12 h interval) by three different treatments namely A, B and C. The treatment A received carp pituitary extract (CPE) + luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogs (LHRHα2) (0.5 mg CPE kg(-1) BW for first injection and 2 mg CPE kg(-1) BW + 10 µg LHRHα2 kg(-1) for second injection), treatment B received CPE (0.5 and 3.5 mg kg(-1) BW), and treatment C received ovaprim (0.1 and 0.15 ml kg(-1) BW). Blood samples were collected at four different time intervals, including prior to injections, 6 h after first injection, 6 h after second injection and at the time of spawning, and serum steroid hormones, including testosterone, progesterone and estradiol-17β as well as cortisol, were measured. Results showed significant increases in serum estradiol-17β following all treatments, but the most profound response was found in treatments A and B. Testosterone was higher in larger broodfish than in small-sized broodfish (>1.5 vs. <1.5 kg) in all treatments. CPE led to higher concentration of testosterone rather than two other treatments. CPE also increases the progesterone following first injection and approximately remains unchanged till the end of experiment. Change in progesterone level was only significant after second injection of ovaprim as well as after spawning compared with previous time. Linear regression analyses indicated that cortisol had adverse effects on progesterone and testosterone levels of weight group <1.5 kg. These results suggest that among inducing agents, applied here, CPE can provide more reasonable response in reproduction of female B. sharpeyi. testosterone.

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To determine whether the central nervous system is involved in the effect of Chinese herbal medicine on sexual function recovery in orchidectomized rats. testosterone.

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We aimed to investigate the effect and mechanism of icariin on male sexual function. Forty-eight Crl:CD1(ICR) male mice were randomly divided into control, low-, medium- and high-dose icariin group (intragastric administration of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/d for 21 days). Mating experiment was then performed at a ratio of 1: 3 (male: female). The mating behaviours of male mice were recorded. The genital indexes and serum testosterone, nitric oxide (NO), hypothalamic dopamine (DA) and 5- hydroxy tryptophan (5-HT) concentrations were measured. The expression of endothelial nitric oxide (eNOS), phosphatidylinositol tallow alcohol 3-kinase (PI3K) and phosphorylated protein kinase (p-AKT) in penile tissue was detected by Western blot. All icariin groups exhibited shorter capture latency and ejaculation latency, increased number of capture and ejaculation, higher capture and ejaculation rate, and higher testicular and prostate indexes compared with controls (p < .001). These groups had higher serum testosterone and NO concentrations (p < .001), hypothalamic DA and 5-HT levels, and eNOS, PI3K and phosphorylated AKT expressions in penile tissue (p < .05). The effect of icariin was dose-dependently increased. Our study suggests that icariin improves the sexual function of male mice, which might be associated with the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and the PI3K/AKT/eNOS/NO signalling pathway. testosterone.

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PCOS women were hyperandrogenic [median FAI = 4.9 (IQR 3.6-7.4)], and POI women were hypoandrogenic [FAI = 1.2 (0.8-1.7)], compared with RC women [FAI = 1.7 (1.1-2.8)], after adjustment for age, ethnicity, smoking and BMI (P < 0.001). After adjustment for age, there were no significant differences in androgens between POI and NM (P = 0.15) women and between NM and RC (P = 0.27) women, the latter indicating that chronological aging rather than ovarian aging influences the differences between pre- and post-menopausal women. A high FAI was associated with elevated triglycerides (β log FAI for PCOS: 0.45, P < 0.001, POI: 0.25, P < 0.001, NM: 0.20, P = 0.002), insulin (β log FAI for PCOS: 0.77, POI: 0.44, NM: 0.40, all P < 0.001), HOMA-IR (β log FAI for PCOS: 0.82, POI: 0.46, NM: 0.47, all P < 0.001) and mean arterial pressure (β log FAI for PCOS: 0.05, P = 0.002, POI: 0.07, P < 0.001, NM: 0.04, P = 0.04) in all women; with increased glucose (β log FAI for PCOS: 0.05, P = 0.003, NM: 0.07, P < 0.001) and decreased high-density lipoprotein (β log FAI for PCOS: -0.23, P < 0.001, NM: -0.09, P = 0.03) in PCOS and NM women; and with increased low-density lipoprotein (β log FAI for POI: 0.083, P = 0.041) in POI women. Adjustment for BMI attenuated the observed associations. Associations between FAI and cardiometabolic features were the strongest in PCOS women, even after adjustment for BMI. testosterone.

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This study aimed to evaluate the effects of quinestrol, a synthetic oestrogen homologue with reproductive toxicity, on the secretion of reproductive hormones and antioxidant status in adult male rat. Our results showed that quinestrol exposure significantly decreased the weight of the testis, epididymides, seminal vesicle, and prostate, as well as the sperm counts in the cauda epididymis of rats. Quinestrol significantly reduced the size of seminiferous tubules and the total number of spermatogenic cells. Serum testosterone, follitropin, and lutropin were also significantly reduced in a dose-related manner after quinestrol exposure. Meanwhile, the activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and total antioxide capacity significantly decreased, whereas the malondialdehyde and nitric oxide concentrations significantly increased in the testes. These findings revealed that endocrine disorders of reproductive hormones and oxidative stress may be involved in reproductive toxicity induced by quinestrol in adult male rats. testosterone.

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VitE and DEX in simultaneous form of administration significantly (P<0.05) down-regulated the tissue ALP level and attenuated the VCL-decreased GSH-px, SOD and TAC levels and remarkably (P<0.05) down-regulated the testicular malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) contents. The VCL-induced histopathological alterations significantly (P<0.05) improved in VitE and DEX-administrated animals. The VitE and DEX co-administration reduced the VCL-increased RNA damage and elevated the Leydig cells steroidogenic activity. The Hsp70-2 protein level completely (P<0.05) increased in VitE and DEX alone-and-simultaneous-administrated animals. Finally, the VitE and DEX could significantly (P<0.05) improve the VCL-decreased semen quality and improved the sperm DNA integrity and chromatin condensation. testosterone.

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We review development and evolution of TIP hypospadias repair, including technical changes made to improve its results. We also discuss general risk factors for hypospadias surgical complications. testosterone.

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Several clinical studies testify the critical role played by estrogens in male bone metabolism. The aim of our study is to assess the effect of a single injection of testosterone enanthate in a group of hypogonadal men on 17β estradiol serum levels and some bone metabolic parameters. testosterone.

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We performed a prospective randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study, during 18 months. A total of 45 healthy sexually active postmenopausal women reporting diminished libido were selected to participate in the study and were randomly assigned to receive 750 mg/d of T terrestris or placebo for 120 days. Randomization was performed using sealed envelopes. All participants answered the Female Sexual Function Index and the Sexual Quotient-female version questionnaires and had their serum levels of prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, total testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin measured. testosterone.

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